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Countries of the World: Kazakhstan
Resources about Kazakhstan including maps, facts about the land, people, history, government, political conditions, and economy.

Economy of Kazakhstan GDP (2007): $102.5 billion. Exchange rate (period average): 122.55 KZT/U.S. $1 in 2007. GDP growth rate: 9.5% (2002); 9.2% (2003); 9.6% (2004 est.); 9.7% (2005 est.); 10.7% (2006); 8.5% (2007). GDP per capita (2007, purchasing power parity): $11,100. Inflation rate: 6.6% (2002); 6.8% (2003); 6.7% (2004 est.); 7.5% (2005); 8.4% (2006); 18.8% (2007 year-over-year); 10.8% (2007 average). Trade: Exports (2007 est.)--$44.88 billion. Imports (2007 est.)--$29.91 billion. Gross external debt: $18.2 billion (2002); $22.9 billion (2003); $32.71 billion (2004); $43.40 billion (2005); $73.46 billion (2006); $96.37 billion (2007). Central Bank's foreign exchange reserves: $4.96 billion (2003); $7.07 billion (2005 est.); $19.04 billion (Feb. 2008). National (oil) fund reserves: $3.6 billion (2003); $5.1 billion (2004); $10.1 billion (2006); $22.6 billion (Feb. 2008). Officially recognized unemployment rate: 8.7% (2003); 8.4% (2004 est.); 8.1% (2005 est.); 7.4% (2006 est.); 7.1% (2007 est.). Population below poverty line: 13.8% (2007).

Geography of Kazakhstan Area: 2.7 million sq. km. (1.05 million sq. mi.); ninth- largest nation in the world; the size of Western Europe. Major cities: Astana (capital, June 1998), Almaty (former capital), Karaganda, and Shymkent. Terrain: Extends east to west from the Caspian Sea to the Altay Mountains and north to south from the plains of Western Siberia to the oasis and desert of Central Asia. Climate: Continental, cold winters and hot summers; arid and semi-arid. Border lengths: Russia 6,846 km., Uzbekistan 2,203 km., China 1,533 km., Kyrgyzstan 1,051 km., and Turkmenistan 379 km.

Government of Kazakhstan Type: Republic. Independence: December 16, 1991 (from the Soviet Union). Declaration of sovereignty: October 25, 1990. Constitution: August 30, 1995 constitution adopted by referendum replaced a 1993 constitution. Branches: Executive--president, prime minister, Council of Ministers. Legislative--Senate and Mazhilis. Judicial--Supreme Court. Administrative subdivisions: 14 oblasts plus 2 cities--Almaty, the former capital, and Astana, the current capital; and the territory of Baykonur, which contains the space launch center that the Russians built and now lease. Ten political parties are registered: Nur Otan ("The Light of Fatherland" in Kazakh), Azat ("Free"; formerly known as True Ak Zhol), the National Social Democratic Party, Ak Zhol (Bright Path), Auyl (Farm), the Communist Party of Kazakhstan, the Communist People's Party, Party of Patriots, Adilet (Justice), and Rukhaniyat (Spirituality). Suffrage: Universal, 18 years of age.

Map of Kazakhstan This Map of Kazakhstan shows the borders of the country, as well as rivers, and cities including Astana the capital of Kazakhstan. (Maps from the U.S. State Department)

Official Name of Kazakhstan The Official Name of Kazakhstan is the Republic of Kazakhstan. (Facts from the U.S. State Department)

People of Kazakhstan Nationality: Kazakhstani. Population (January 2008 est.): 15.6 million--down from 16.2 million in 1989; second most-populated country in Central Asia. Large-scale emigration of ethnic Russians, Germans, and Ukrainians accounts for most of the population decrease since 1989. Population growth rate (2007 est.): 1.08%. Population distribution: 52.8 % of population lives in urban areas. The largest cities include Astana (capital) with a population of 602,480, Almaty (former capital) 1.3 million, Karaganda 453,400, Shymkent 545,400, Taraz 340,000, Ust- Kamenogorsk 310,000, Pavlodar 300,000. Population density: 14.5 people per sq. mi. (U.S. density, 2000: 79.6 people per sq. mi.). Ethnic groups (2002): Kazakh 55.8%, Russian 28.3%, Ukrainian 3.3%, Uzbek 2.6%, German 1.8%, Uyghur 1.5%, other 5.0%. Religion: Sunni Muslim 47%, Russian Orthodox 44%, Protestant 2%, other 7%. Language: Kazakhstan is a bilingual country. Kazakh language has the status of the "state" language, while Russian is declared the "official" language. Russian is used routinely in business; 64.4% of population speaks the Kazakh language. Health (2007 est.): Infant mortality rate--27.4/1,000. Life expectancy--67.22 years (male 61.9 yrs.; female 72.84 yrs.). Health care (2005 est.)--30.3 doctors and 68.2 hospital beds per 10,000 persons. Education: Mandatory universal secondary education. School system consists of kindergarten, primary school (grades 1- 4), secondary school (grades 5-9), and high school (grades 10-11). Literacy rate--98.4%. Work force (2007 est., 8.16 million): Industry and construction--18.1%; agriculture and fishing--32.9%; services--49%.

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