Countries of the World:
Resources about Mongolia including maps, facts about the land, people, history, government,
political conditions, and economy.
Economy of Mongolia
GDP (2009 est.): 6.1 trillion Mongolian Tugruks/MNT (U.S.
$4.2 billion at current exchange rates).
GDP growth (2009): -1.6%.
Per capita GDP (2009): approx. $1,551.
Natural resources: Coal (thermal and metallurgical), copper,
molybdenum, silver, iron, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc,
wolfram, fluorspar, gold, uranium, and petroleum.
Agriculture (21.2% of 2009 GDP, livelihood for about 40% of
population): Products--livestock and byproducts, hay fodder,
Industry (30.5% of 2009 GDP, includes mining 22%,
manufacturing 5.9%, and utilities (electricity, gas, and
water) 2.6%: Types--minerals (primarily copper and gold),
animal-derived products, building materials, food/beverage.
Trade: Total turnover of foreign trade for 2009 was $4.02
billion. Exports--$1.88 billion (U.S. dollar (USD) figures
based on current USD/MNT exchange rate): minerals,
livestock, animal products, and textiles. Markets--Asian
countries (approx. 75.5%), European countries (approx.
15.81%), and countries of American continent (approx. 8.5%).
Imports--$2.13 billion: machinery and equipment, fuels, food
products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building
equipment, vehicles, textiles. Suppliers--91 countries
account for 93.2% of total imports, of which European
countries (50.5%) and Asian countries (42.7%).
Aid received: From 1990-2008, official development
assistance to Mongolia from bilateral and multilateral
donors totaled over $3.698 billion. Received $185.94 million
in official development assistance in 2008.
Fiscal year: Calendar year.
Geography of Mongolia
Area: 1,566,500 sq. km. (604,103 sq. mi.); slightly larger
than Alaska (land boundaries 8,114 km.).
Terrain: Almost 90% of land area is pasture or desert, of
varying usefulness; 1% arable; 9% forested.
Climate: Continental, with little precipitation and sharp
Government of Mongolia
Type: Mixed parliamentary/presidential.
Independence: gained in 1921; in 1990, democratic reform
begun and shift from dependence on the former Soviet Union
Constitutions: 1960 and February 12, 1992.
Branches: Executive--power is divided between a president
(elected by a popular election in May 2009) and prime
minister (current cabinet nominated by the prime minister
was approved in November 2009 following the appointment of a
new prime minister; most cabinet members remained in place
from the September 2008 government of the previous prime
minister, who stepped aside due to health problems).
Legislative--State Great Hural (parliament; 76 members
elected in June 2008). Judicial--Constitutional Court is
empowered to supervise the implementation of the
constitution, makes judgment on the violation of its
provisions, and solves disputes. Legal code based on
Continental and Russian law. Legal education at Mongolian
State University and private universities. Mongolia accepts
International Court of Justice jurisdiction.
Political parties: 18 registered political parties.
Suffrage: Universal at 18.
Administrative subdivisions: 21 aimags (provinces) and one
Map of Mongolia
This Map of Mongolia shows the borders of the country, as well
as rivers, and cities including Ulaanbaatar the capital of
Mongolia. (Maps from the U.S. State Department)
Official Name of Mongolia
The Official Name of Mongolia is Mongolia. (Facts from the
U.S. State Department)
People of Mongolia
Nationality: Noun and adjective--Mongolian(s).
Population (2009): 2.735 million.
Annual population growth rate (2009): 1.4%.
Health: Infant mortality rate (under one year)--19.4/1,000
(2008); 20/1,000 (2009). Life expectancy--67 yrs. (2008); 67.9
Ethnic groups (2004): About 95% Mongol (predominantly
Khalkha); 5% Turkic (largest group, Kazakh); Buriat.
Religions (2004): Buddhist Lamaism 50%, Muslim 4% (primarily
in the southwest), shamanist and Christian 6%, and none 40%.
Education: Years compulsory--9 (provided free by the
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