Countries of the World:
Resources about Peru including maps, facts about the land, people, history, government, political
conditions, and economy.
Economy of Peru
GDP (2009): $127.22 billion.
Annual growth rate: 9.8% (2008); 0.9% (2009).
Per capita GDP (2009): $4,365.
Natural resources: Copper, gold, silver, zinc, lead, iron
ore, fish, petroleum, natural gas, and forestry.
Manufacturing (2009): 14.33% of GDP. Types--food and
beverages, textiles and apparel, nonferrous and precious
metals, nonmetallic minerals, petroleum refining, paper,
chemicals, iron and steel, fishmeal.
Agriculture (2009): 7.8% of GDP. Products--coffee, cotton,
asparagus, paprika, artichokes, sugarcane, potatoes, rice,
banana, maize, poultry, milk, others.
Other sectors, by percentage of GDP (2009): Services (54%),
mining (5.7%), construction (6.2%), fisheries (0.44%).
Trade (2009 Government of Peru customs statistics): Exports-
-$26.66 billion: gold, copper, fishmeal, petroleum, zinc,
textiles, apparel, asparagus, coffee, others. Major markets-
-U.S. (17%), China (15.3%), Switzerland (14.9%), Canada
(8.7%), Japan (5.1%), Germany (3.9%), South Korea (2.8%),
Chile (2.8%). Imports--$20.4 billion: petroleum and
petroleum products, vehicles, plastics, steel, telephones,
wheat, soy oil and soy products, commercial machinery,
processed food. Major suppliers--U.S. (19.7%), China (15%),
Brazil (7.7%), Ecuador (4.9%), Chile (4.6%), Colombia
(4.4%), Japan (4.1%).
Geography of Peru
Area: 1.28 million sq. km. (496,225 sq. mi.). Peru is the
third-largest country in South America and is approximately
three times the size of California.
Major cities: Lima (capital), Arequipa, Chiclayo, Cuzco,
Huancayo, Ica, Trujillo, Ayacucho, Piura, Iquitos, and
Terrain: Western arid coastal plains, central rugged Andean
mountains, and eastern lowlands with tropical forests that are
part of the Amazon basin.
Climate: Arid and mild in coastal area, temperate to frigid in
the Andes, and warm and humid in the jungle lowlands.
Government of Peru
Type: Constitutional republic.
Independence: July 28, 1821.
Constitution: December 31, 1993.
Branches: Executive--president, two vice presidents, and a
Council of Ministers led by a president of the Council of
Ministers (prime minister). Legislative--unicameral Congress.
Judicial--four-tier court structure consisting of Supreme
Court and lower courts.
Administrative divisions: 25 regions (sometimes called
departments) subdivided into 195 provinces and 1,834
Political parties: Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana
(APRA), Popular Christian Party PPC), Peruvian Nationalist
Party (PNP), Peru Posible (PP), Popular Action (AP), National
Solidarity (SN), Union for Peru (UPP), Somos Peru (SP),
National Restoration (RN), and Force 2011.
Suffrage: Universal and mandatory for citizens 18 to 70.
Map of Peru
This Map of Peru shows the borders of the country, as well as
rivers, and cities including Lima the capital of Peru. (Maps
from the U.S. State Department)
Official Name of Peru
The Official Name of Peru is the Republic of Peru. (Facts from
the U.S. State Department)
People of Peru
Ethnic groups: Indigenous (45%); mixed background ("mestizo")
(37%); European (15%); African, Japanese, Chinese, and other
Population (2009): 29.11 million. Approximately 30% of the
population lives in the Lima/Callao metropolitan area.
Annual population growth rate (2009): 1.11%.
Religions: Roman Catholic (81%), other (10%).
Languages: Spanish is the principal language. Quechua, Aymara
and other indigenous languages also have official status.
Education: Years compulsory--11. Attendance--ages 6-11, 92%;
ages 12-16, 66%. Literacy--96% in urban areas, 80% in rural
Health: Infant mortality rate (2006)--29.96 per 1,000. Life
expectancy (2007)--68.33 years male; 72.04 years female.
Unemployment in Lima (2009): 8.4%; underemployment (2009):
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