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Countries of the World: Sudan
Resources about Sudan including maps, facts about the land, people, history, government, political conditions, and economy.

Economy of Sudan GDP (2009 est.): $92.81 billion GDP annual growth rate (2009 est.): 3.8%. Per capita income GDP (2009 est.): $2,300. Avg. annual inflation rate (2009 est.): 12.3%. Natural resources: Modest reserves of oil, natural gas, gold, iron ore, copper, and other industrial metals. Agriculture: Products--cotton, peanuts, sorghum, sesame seeds, gum arabic, sugarcane, millet, livestock. Industry: Types--motor vehicle assembly, cement, cotton, edible oils and sugar refining. Trade: Exports (2009 est.)--$8.464 billion f.o.b.: crude oil and petroleum products, cotton, gold, sorghum, peanuts, gum arabic, sugar, meat, hides, live animals, and sesame seeds. Major markets China, Japan, Indonesia, Egypt, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, South Korea. Imports (2009 est.)--$6.823 billion f.o.b.: oil and petroleum products, oil pipeline, pumping and refining equipment, chemical products and equipment, wheat and wheat flour, transport equipment, foodstuffs, tea, agricultural inputs and machinery, industrial inputs and manufactured goods. Major suppliers--European Union, China, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, United Arab Emirates, and India. Fiscal year: January 1-December 31.

Geography of Sudan Area: 2.5 million sq. km. (967,500 sq. mi.); the largest country in Africa and almost the size of continental U.S. east of the Mississippi River. Cities: Capital--Khartoum (pop. 1.4 million). Other cities-- Omdurman (2.1 million), Port Sudan (pop. 450,000), Kassala, Kosti, Juba (capital of southern region). Land boundaries: Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Libya, and Uganda. Terrain: Generally flat with mountains in east and west. Khartoum is situated at the confluence of the Blue and White Nile Rivers. The southern regions are inundated during the annual floods of the Nile River system (the Suud or swamps). Climate: Desert and savanna in the north and central regions and tropical in the south.

Government of Sudan Independence: January 1, 1956. Type: Provisional Government established by the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) signed in January 2005 that provides for power sharing pending national elections. The national elections took place from April 11-15, 2010. Constitution: The Interim National Constitution was adopted on July 6, 2005. It was drafted by the National Constitutional Review Commission, as mandated by the January 2005 CPA. The Government of Southern Sudan also has a constitution adopted in December 2005; it was certified by the Ministry of Justice to be in conformity with the Interim National Constitution and the Comprehensive Peace Agreement. Branches: Executive--executive authority is held by the president, who also is the prime minister, head of state, head of government, and commander in chief of the armed forces; effective July 9, 2005, the executive branch includes a first vice president and a vice president. As stipulated by the Comprehensive Peace Agreement and Interim National Constitution, the first vice president position is held by the president of Southern Sudan, assuming the president is from the North. Legislative--National Legislature. The National Assembly, the lower house, has 450 elected members; an additional 46 seats will be appointed under a political agreement between the two CPA parties to resolve disputes over the accuracy of districting based on the May 2008 census. There is also an upper house, the Council of States, which is composed of two representatives from each of the nation's 25 states, and two observers from the Abyei Area. Judicial--High Court, Minister of Justice, Attorney General, civil and special tribunals. Administrative subdivisions: Twenty-five states, most with an elected governor, along with a state cabinet and elected state legislative assembly. Political parties: Currently there are many political parties in both the nation's north and south. Seventy-two parties registered to take part in the April 2010 elections. All political parties were banned following the June 30, 1989 military coup. Political associations, taking the place of parties, were authorized in 2000. Some parties are in self-imposed exile. The principal national parties are the National Congress Party (NCP), which attracts mainly northern support, and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM), a southern Sudan-based party. These two parties are signatories to the CPA. Central government budget (2007 est.): $9.201 billion. Defense (2005 est.): 3% of GDP.

Map of Sudan This Map of Sudan shows the borders of the country, as well as rivers, and cities including Khartoum the capital of Sudan. (Maps from the U.S. State Department)

Official Name of Sudan The Official Name of Sudan is the Republic of the Sudan. (Facts from the U.S. State Department)

People of Sudan Nationality: Noun and adjective (sing. and pl.)--Sudanese. Population (July 2009 est.): 41,087,825; 43% urban. Annual population growth rate (2009 est.): 2.143%. Ethnic groups: Arab/Muslim north and black African/Christian and animist south. Religions: Islam (official), indigenous beliefs (southern Sudan), Christianity. Languages: Arabic (official), English (official), tribal languages. Education: Years compulsory--8. Attendance--35%-40%. Literacy- -61.1%. Health: Infant mortality rate--82.43/1,000. Life expectancy-- 51.42 yrs. Work force: Agriculture--80%; industry and commerce--7%; government--13%.

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