Countries of the World:
Resources about Sudan including maps, facts about the land, people, history,
government, political conditions, and economy.
Economy of Sudan
GDP (2009 est.): $92.81 billion
GDP annual growth rate (2009 est.): 3.8%.
Per capita income GDP (2009 est.): $2,300.
Avg. annual inflation rate (2009 est.): 12.3%.
Natural resources: Modest reserves of oil, natural gas,
gold, iron ore, copper, and other industrial metals.
Agriculture: Products--cotton, peanuts, sorghum, sesame
seeds, gum arabic, sugarcane, millet, livestock.
Industry: Types--motor vehicle assembly, cement, cotton,
edible oils and sugar refining.
Trade: Exports (2009 est.)--$8.464 billion f.o.b.: crude oil
and petroleum products, cotton, gold, sorghum, peanuts, gum
arabic, sugar, meat, hides, live animals, and sesame seeds.
Major markets China, Japan, Indonesia, Egypt, United Arab
Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, South Korea. Imports (2009
est.)--$6.823 billion f.o.b.: oil and petroleum products,
oil pipeline, pumping and refining equipment, chemical
products and equipment, wheat and wheat flour, transport
equipment, foodstuffs, tea, agricultural inputs and
machinery, industrial inputs and manufactured goods. Major
suppliers--European Union, China, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia,
Egypt, United Arab Emirates, and India.
Fiscal year: January 1-December 31.
Geography of Sudan
Area: 2.5 million sq. km. (967,500 sq. mi.); the largest
country in Africa and almost the size of continental U.S. east
of the Mississippi River.
Cities: Capital--Khartoum (pop. 1.4 million). Other cities--
Omdurman (2.1 million), Port Sudan (pop. 450,000), Kassala,
Kosti, Juba (capital of southern region).
Land boundaries: Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic
Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Libya,
Terrain: Generally flat with mountains in east and west.
Khartoum is situated at the confluence of the Blue and White
Nile Rivers. The southern regions are inundated during the
annual floods of the Nile River system (the Suud or swamps).
Climate: Desert and savanna in the north and central regions
and tropical in the south.
Government of Sudan
Independence: January 1, 1956.
Type: Provisional Government established by the
Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) signed in January 2005
that provides for power sharing pending national elections.
The national elections took place from April 11-15, 2010.
Constitution: The Interim National Constitution was adopted
on July 6, 2005. It was drafted by the National
Constitutional Review Commission, as mandated by the January
2005 CPA. The Government of Southern Sudan also has a
constitution adopted in December 2005; it was certified by
the Ministry of Justice to be in conformity with the Interim
National Constitution and the Comprehensive Peace Agreement.
Branches: Executive--executive authority is held by the
president, who also is the prime minister, head of state,
head of government, and commander in chief of the armed
forces; effective July 9, 2005, the executive branch
includes a first vice president and a vice president. As
stipulated by the Comprehensive Peace Agreement and Interim
National Constitution, the first vice president position is
held by the president of Southern Sudan, assuming the
president is from the North. Legislative--National
Legislature. The National Assembly, the lower house, has 450
elected members; an additional 46 seats will be appointed
under a political agreement between the two CPA parties to
resolve disputes over the accuracy of districting based on
the May 2008 census. There is also an upper house, the
Council of States, which is composed of two representatives
from each of the nation's 25 states, and two observers from
the Abyei Area. Judicial--High Court, Minister of Justice,
Attorney General, civil and special tribunals.
Administrative subdivisions: Twenty-five states, most with
an elected governor, along with a state cabinet and elected
state legislative assembly.
Political parties: Currently there are many political
parties in both the nation's north and south. Seventy-two
parties registered to take part in the April 2010 elections.
All political parties were banned following the June 30,
1989 military coup. Political associations, taking the place
of parties, were authorized in 2000. Some parties are in
self-imposed exile. The principal national parties are the
National Congress Party (NCP), which attracts mainly
northern support, and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement
(SPLM), a southern Sudan-based party. These two parties are
signatories to the CPA.
Central government budget (2007 est.): $9.201 billion.
Defense (2005 est.): 3% of GDP.
Map of Sudan
This Map of Sudan shows the borders of the country, as well as
rivers, and cities including Khartoum the capital of Sudan.
(Maps from the U.S. State Department)
Official Name of Sudan
The Official Name of Sudan is the Republic of the Sudan.
(Facts from the U.S. State Department)
People of Sudan
Nationality: Noun and adjective (sing. and pl.)--Sudanese.
Population (July 2009 est.): 41,087,825; 43% urban.
Annual population growth rate (2009 est.): 2.143%.
Ethnic groups: Arab/Muslim north and black African/Christian
and animist south.
Religions: Islam (official), indigenous beliefs (southern
Languages: Arabic (official), English (official), tribal
Education: Years compulsory--8. Attendance--35%-40%. Literacy-
Health: Infant mortality rate--82.43/1,000. Life expectancy--
Work force: Agriculture--80%; industry and commerce--7%;
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