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Countries of the World: Tonga
Resources about Tonga including maps, facts about the land, people, history, government, political conditions, and economy.

Economy of Tonga (all figures in U.S. dollars) GDP (2009): $313 million. Per capita GDP (2009): $3,032. GDP real growth rate (2010 est.): 0.6%. Natural resources: Fish. Agriculture (25% of GDP): Products--root crops, squash, vanilla, kava, fish and other marine products. Industry: 14% of GDP. Services (2008): 62% of GDP. Trade (2008-2009): Exports--$5.5 million: fish, root crops, vanilla, kava, squash. Major export markets--New Zealand, U.S. ($3 million), Australia, Japan, Fiji. Imports--$130.1 million: fuels, minerals and chemicals, food products, machinery and transport services equipment. Major import sources--New Zealand, Fiji, U.S. ($13 million), Australia, China. Fiscal year: July 1 to June 30.

Geography of Tonga Area: 747 sq. km. (288 sq. mi.). Cities: Capital--Nuku'alofa (pop. 34,000). Terrain: 171 islands, mainly raised coral but some volcanic; 48 inhabited. Climate: Tropical, modified by trade winds. Warm season (December to May), cool season (May to December).

Government of Tonga Type: Constitutional hereditary monarchy. Constitution: 1875 (revised 1970). Independence: June 4, 1970. Branches: Executive--monarch, prime minister, and cabinet. Legislative--unicameral Legislative Assembly. Judicial--Privy Council, Court of Appeal, Supreme Court, Land Court, Magistrates' Court. Administrative subdivisions: Three main island groups-- Ha'apai, Tongatapu, Vava'u. Political parties: People's Democratic Party, Friendly Islands Human Rights and Democratic Movement, Paati Langafonua Tu'uloa, Tonga Democratic Labour Party. Suffrage: Universal at age 21. Central government budget (2009-2010 est.): $100.1 million.

Map of Tonga This Map of Tonga shows the borders of the country, as well as rivers, and cities including Nuku'alofa the capital of Tonga. (Maps from the U.S. State Department)

Official Name of Tonga The Official Name of Tonga is the Kingdom of Tonga. (Facts from the U.S. State Department)

People of Tonga Nationality: Noun and adjective--Tongan(s). Population (2010 est.): 103,365. Age structure (2010 est.): 38% below 15; 8% over 60. Annual population growth rate (2010): 0.3%. Ethnic groups: Tongan 98%, other Polynesian, European. Religions: Christian. Languages: Tongan, English. Education: Literacy (2006)--98%. Health: Infant mortality rate (2006)--19/1,000. Life expectancy at birth--68.56 years (female 73 years; male 67.3 years). Work force (2006): 35,670. Agriculture--65%. Unemployment (2006): 4.9%.

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