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Resources about Turkmenistan including maps, facts about the land, people, history,
government, political conditions, and economy.
Economy of Turkmenistan
GDP (PPP - purchasing power parity): $16.24 billion
(Government of Turkmenistan report).
GDP per capita (PPP, est.): $3,248.
GDP real growth rate (Government of Turkmenistan estimate):
Inflation rate: 13%.
Agriculture: Products--cotton, grain, livestock, fruit and
Industry: Types--natural gas, oil, petroleum products,
textiles, food processing.
Trade (2008 est.): Exports ($11.92 billion)--gas 50%, oil and
oil products 32%, cotton 2%. Partners--Russia, Iran, Italy,
Turkey. Imports ($5.67 billion)--manufactured goods 65%,
consumer goods 34%. Partners--Turkey, Russia, Ukraine, U.A.E.,
China, United States. Debt, external: Reported $4 billion to
the Chinese Development Bank; $1 billion to Islamic
Geography of Turkmenistan
Area: 488,100 sq. km. (303,292 sq. mi.).
Cities: Capital--Ashgabat. Other cities--Turkmenabat (formerly
Chardjou/Charjew), Dashoguz (formerly Dashowuz), Mary,
Turkmenbashi (formerly Krasnovodsk).
Terrain: 80% covered by the Karakum Desert, with dunes rising
to the Kopet Dag Mountains in the south along the border with
Iran; borders the Caspian Sea to the west and the Amu Darya
River and Uzbekistan to the east; borders Afghanistan to the
southeast, Kazakhstan to the north.
Government of Turkmenistan
Independence: October 27, 1991 (from the Soviet Union).
Constitution: May 18, 1992. Last amended September 26, 2008.
Branches: Executive--President. Legislative--Mejlis
(Parliament). Judicial--Supreme Court.
Administrative subdivisions: 5 welayats (provinces)--Ahal
Welayat (Ashgabat), Balkan Welayat (Balkanabat), Dashoguz
Welayat (formerly Dashowuz), Lebap Welayat (Turkmenabat,
formerly Chardjou/Charjew), Mary Welayat.
Political parties: Democratic Party of Turkmenistan
(opposition parties are outlawed).
Map of Turkmenistan
This Map of Turkmenistan shows the borders of the country, as
well as rivers, and cities including Ashgabat the capital of
Turkmenistan. (Maps from the U.S. State Department)
Official Name of Turkmenistan
The Official Name of Turkmenistan is Turkmenistan. (Facts from
the U.S. State Department)
People of Turkmenistan
Population (July 2009 est.): 4,884,887.
Population growth rate (2009 est.): 1.14%.
Ethnic groups (2003 est.): Turkmen 85%, Uzbek 5%, Russian 4%,
Religion: Muslim 89%, Eastern Orthodox 9%, unknown 2%.
Language: Turkmen 72%, Russian 12%, Uzbek 9%, other 7%.
Education (2002 est.): Literacy--98.8%.
Health (2009 est.): Infant mortality rate--45.36/1,000. Life
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