Countries of the World:
Resources about Venezuela including maps, facts about the land, people,
history, government, political conditions, and economy.
Economy of Venezuela
GDP (2008): $313 billion.
Annual growth rate (2009): -2.9%.
GDP per capita (2008): $11,207.
Government expenditures (2008): 27% of GDP.
Natural resources: Petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore,
gold, diamonds, bauxite, other minerals, hydroelectric
Petroleum industry (11.6% of 2009 GDP in constant 1997
dollars): Oil refining, petrochemicals.
Manufacturing (15.2% of 2009 GDP in constant 2007 dollars):
Types--iron and steel products, paper products, aluminum,
textiles, transport equipment, consumer products.
Agriculture (4% of GDP): Products--corn, sorghum, rice,
bananas, vegetables, coffee, beef, pork, poultry, milk,
Trade: Exports (2009)--$60.9 billion: petroleum ($57.6
billion), aluminum, steel, chemical products, iron ore,
cigarettes, plastics, fish, cement, and paper products.
Major markets (2005)--U.S. 57.5%, the Netherlands 5.2%,
Mexico 4.5%, Colombia 4.5%. Imports (2009)--$38.5 billion:
consumer goods, machinery and transport equipment,
manufactured goods, construction materials. Major suppliers
(Jan.-Oct. 2009)--U.S. 27.0%, Colombia 12.6%, China 10.2%,
Exchange rate (2010): 2.6 bolivares fuertes=U.S. $1 for some
transactions; 4.3 bolivares fuertes=U.S. $1 for other
Geography of Venezuela
Area: 912,050 sq. km. (352,143 sq. mi.); slightly more than
twice the size of California.
Cities: Capital--Caracas (metro. area pop. 3.2 million). Other
major cities--Maracaibo, Valencia, Barquisimeto, Maracay,
Merida, Ciudad Bolivar.
Terrain: Andes Mountains and Maracaibo Lowlands in northwest;
central plains; Guiana Highlands in southeast.
Climate: Varies from tropical to temperate, depending on
Government of Venezuela
Type: Federal Republic.
Independence: July 5, 1811.
Constitution: December 30, 1999.
Branches: Executive--President (head of government and chief
of state; 6-year term); Council of Ministers (cabinet,
appointed by president). Legislative--unicameral Congress
(5-year term). Judicial--32-member Supreme Court (elected by
Congress; 12-year term). Electoral--National Electoral
Council (elected by Congress; 7-year term). Citizen Power--
Attorney General, Ombudsman, Comptroller General (elected by
Congress; 7-year term).
Subdivisions: 23 states, one federal district (Caracas), and
one federal dependency (72 islands).
Major political parties: United Socialist Party of Venezuela
(PSUV), Fifth Republic Movement or Movimiento V Republica
(MVR), Democratic Action or Accion Democratica (AD),
Christian Democrats or Comite Organizador Politico por
Elecciones Independientes (COPEI), Homeland for All or
Patria Para Todos (PPT), Movement to Socialism or Movimiento
al Socialismo (MAS), Radical Cause or La Causa Radical,
First Justice or Primero Justicia, the National Convergence
or Convergencia, For Social Democracy (Podemos), and Un
Nuevo Tiempo (UNT).
Suffrage: Universal, age 18 and over.
Principal government officials: See listing under History
and Political Conditions section.
Map of Venezuela
This Map of Venezuela shows the borders of the country, as
well as rivers, and cities including Caracas the capital of
Venezuela. (Maps from the U.S. State Department)
Official Name of Venezuela
The Official Name of Venezuela is the Bolivarian Republic of
Venezuela. (Facts from the U.S. State Department)
People of Venezuela
Nationality: Noun and adjective--Venezuelan(s).
Population (Dec. 2009 est.): 28,385,627.
Annual population growth: 1.6%.
Religion: Roman Catholic 96%, Protestant 2%, other 2%.
Language: Spanish (official), numerous indigenous dialects.
Education: Years compulsory--9. Literacy--95%.
Health: Infant mortality rate--22.02 deaths/1,000 live births.
Life expectancy--73.38 years.
Ethnic groups: Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Arab, German,
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