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Countries of the World: Vietnam
Resources about Vietnam including maps, facts about the land, people, history, government, political conditions, and economy.

Economy of Vietnam GDP: $92.6 billion (2009); $70 billion (through third quarter 2010). Real growth rate: 5.32% (2009); 6.52% (through third quarter 2010, year-on-year). Per capita income (2009): $1,052. Inflation rate: 6.88% (average monthly Consumer Price Index of 2009, year-on-year); 8.64% (average monthly CPI through third quarter 2010, year-on-year). External debt (2009): 32.8% of GDP, $30.1 billion. Natural resources: Coal, crude oil, zinc, copper, silver, gold, manganese, iron. Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries (20.7% of GDP, 2009; 21.09% of GDP, through third quarter 2010): Principal products--rice, coffee, cashews, maize, pepper (spice), sweet potato, pork, peanut, cotton, plus extensive aquaculture of both fish and shellfish species. Cultivated land--12.2 million hectares. Land use--21% arable; 28% forest and woodland; 51% other. Industry and construction (40.3% of GDP, 2009; 40.85% of GDP, through third quarter 2010): Principal types--mining and quarrying, manufacturing, electricity, gas, water supply, cement, phosphate, and steel. Services (39.1% of GDP, 2009; 38.06% of GDP, through third quarter 2010): Principal types--tourism, wholesale and retail, repair of vehicles and personal goods, hotel and restaurant, transport storage, telecommunications. Trade (2009): Exports--$56.6 billion (through third quarter 2010: $51.5 billion). Principal exports--crude oil, garments/textiles, footwear, fishery and seafood products, rice (world’s second-largest exporter), pepper (spice; world’s largest exporter), wood products, coffee, rubber, handicrafts. Major export partners--U.S., EU, ASEAN, Japan, China, and South Korea. Imports--$68.8 billion (through third quarter 2010: $60 billion). Principal imports-- machinery, oil and gas, iron and steel, garment materials, plastics. Major import partners--China, ASEAN, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, and EU. Exports to U.S. (2009)--$12.3 billion. Imports from U.S. (2009)--$3.1 billion.

Geography of Vietnam Area: 331,114 sq. km. (127,243 sq. mi.); equivalent in size to Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee combined. Cities (2009): Capital--Hanoi (pop. 6.472 million). Other cities--Ho Chi Minh City (formerly Saigon; pop. 7.163 million), Haiphong (pop. 1.841 million), Danang (pop. 890,500), Can Tho (pop. 1.189 million). Terrain: Varies from mountainous to coastal delta. Climate: Tropical monsoon.

Government of Vietnam Type: Single-party constitutional republic (Communist Party). Independence: September 2, 1945. New constitution: April 15, 1992. Branches: Executive--president (head of state and chair of National Defense and Security Council) and prime minister (heads cabinet of ministries and commissions). Legislative-- National Assembly. Judicial--Supreme People's Court; Prosecutorial Supreme People's Procuracy. Administrative subdivisions: 58 provinces, 5 municipalities (Can Tho, Haiphong, Danang, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City). Political party: Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) with over 3 million members, formerly (1951-76) Vietnam Worker's Party, itself the successor of the Indochinese Communist Party founded in 1930. Suffrage: Universal over 18.

Map of Vietnam This Map of Vietnam shows the borders of the country, as well as rivers, and cities including Hanoi the capital of Vietnam. (Maps from the U.S. State Department)

Official Name of Vietnam The Official Name of Vietnam is the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. (Facts from the U.S. State Department)

People of Vietnam Nationality: Noun and adjective--Vietnamese (sing. and pl.). Population (2009): 85.847 million. Annual population growth rate (2009): 1.2%. Ethnic groups (2009): 54 groups including Vietnamese (Kinh) (73.594 million, or 85.7% of the population), Tay (1.89%), Thai (1.8%), Muong (1.47%), Khmer (1.46%), Chinese (0.95%), Nung (1.12%), Hmong (1.24%). Religions (2008): Buddhism (approx. 50%), Catholicism (8%- 10%), Cao Dai (1.5%-3%), Protestantism (0.5%-2%), Hoa Hao (1.5%-4%), Islam (0.1%), and other animist religions. Languages: Vietnamese (official), English (increasingly favored as a second language), some French, Chinese, and other ethnic minority languages. Education (2009): Literacy--94%. Health (2009): Birth rate--17.73 births/1,000 population. Infant mortality rate--22.26 deaths/1,000 live births. Life expectancy--73 yrs. Death rate--5.98/1,000 population.

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