Countries of the World:
Resources about Vietnam including maps, facts about the land, people, history, government,
political conditions, and economy.
Economy of Vietnam
GDP: $92.6 billion (2009); $70 billion (through third
Real growth rate: 5.32% (2009); 6.52% (through third quarter
Per capita income (2009): $1,052.
Inflation rate: 6.88% (average monthly Consumer Price Index
of 2009, year-on-year); 8.64% (average monthly CPI through
third quarter 2010, year-on-year).
External debt (2009): 32.8% of GDP, $30.1 billion.
Natural resources: Coal, crude oil, zinc, copper, silver,
gold, manganese, iron.
Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries (20.7% of GDP, 2009;
21.09% of GDP, through third quarter 2010): Principal
products--rice, coffee, cashews, maize, pepper (spice),
sweet potato, pork, peanut, cotton, plus extensive
aquaculture of both fish and shellfish species. Cultivated
land--12.2 million hectares. Land use--21% arable; 28%
forest and woodland; 51% other.
Industry and construction (40.3% of GDP, 2009; 40.85% of
GDP, through third quarter 2010): Principal types--mining
and quarrying, manufacturing, electricity, gas, water
supply, cement, phosphate, and steel.
Services (39.1% of GDP, 2009; 38.06% of GDP, through third
quarter 2010): Principal types--tourism, wholesale and
retail, repair of vehicles and personal goods, hotel and
restaurant, transport storage, telecommunications.
Trade (2009): Exports--$56.6 billion (through third quarter
2010: $51.5 billion). Principal exports--crude oil,
garments/textiles, footwear, fishery and seafood products,
rice (world’s second-largest exporter), pepper (spice;
world’s largest exporter), wood products, coffee, rubber,
handicrafts. Major export partners--U.S., EU, ASEAN, Japan,
China, and South Korea. Imports--$68.8 billion (through
third quarter 2010: $60 billion). Principal imports--
machinery, oil and gas, iron and steel, garment materials,
plastics. Major import partners--China, ASEAN, Japan,
Taiwan, South Korea, and EU. Exports to U.S. (2009)--$12.3
billion. Imports from U.S. (2009)--$3.1 billion.
Geography of Vietnam
Area: 331,114 sq. km. (127,243 sq. mi.); equivalent in size to
Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee combined.
Cities (2009): Capital--Hanoi (pop. 6.472 million). Other
cities--Ho Chi Minh City (formerly Saigon; pop. 7.163
million), Haiphong (pop. 1.841 million), Danang (pop.
890,500), Can Tho (pop. 1.189 million).
Terrain: Varies from mountainous to coastal delta.
Climate: Tropical monsoon.
Government of Vietnam
Type: Single-party constitutional republic (Communist Party).
Independence: September 2, 1945.
New constitution: April 15, 1992.
Branches: Executive--president (head of state and chair of
National Defense and Security Council) and prime minister
(heads cabinet of ministries and commissions). Legislative--
National Assembly. Judicial--Supreme People's Court;
Prosecutorial Supreme People's Procuracy.
Administrative subdivisions: 58 provinces, 5 municipalities
(Can Tho, Haiphong, Danang, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City).
Political party: Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) with over 3
million members, formerly (1951-76) Vietnam Worker's Party,
itself the successor of the Indochinese Communist Party
founded in 1930.
Suffrage: Universal over 18.
Map of Vietnam
This Map of Vietnam shows the borders of the country, as well
as rivers, and cities including Hanoi the capital of Vietnam.
(Maps from the U.S. State Department)
Official Name of Vietnam
The Official Name of Vietnam is the Socialist Republic of
Vietnam. (Facts from the U.S. State Department)
People of Vietnam
Nationality: Noun and adjective--Vietnamese (sing. and pl.).
Population (2009): 85.847 million.
Annual population growth rate (2009): 1.2%.
Ethnic groups (2009): 54 groups including Vietnamese (Kinh)
(73.594 million, or 85.7% of the population), Tay (1.89%),
Thai (1.8%), Muong (1.47%), Khmer (1.46%), Chinese (0.95%),
Nung (1.12%), Hmong (1.24%).
Religions (2008): Buddhism (approx. 50%), Catholicism (8%-
10%), Cao Dai (1.5%-3%), Protestantism (0.5%-2%), Hoa Hao
(1.5%-4%), Islam (0.1%), and other animist religions.
Languages: Vietnamese (official), English (increasingly
favored as a second language), some French, Chinese, and other
ethnic minority languages.
Education (2009): Literacy--94%.
Health (2009): Birth rate--17.73 births/1,000 population.
Infant mortality rate--22.26 deaths/1,000 live births. Life
expectancy--73 yrs. Death rate--5.98/1,000 population.
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