Countries of the World:
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Resources about Bosnia and Herzegovina including maps, facts about the land, people,
history, government, political conditions, and economy.
Economy of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Nominal GDP (2009 est.): $16.5 billion. (U.S.$1=1.45KM)
GDP real growth rate (2009 est.): -3.2%.
Nominal GDP per capita: $4,346.
Inflation rate (2009 est.): 0.6%.
Average monthly net salary (2009): $544.
Natural resources: Hydropower, coal, iron ore, bauxite,
manganese, forests, copper, chromium, lead, zinc, cobalt,
nickel, clay, gypsum, salt, sand, forests.
Agriculture: Products--wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables,
Industry: Steel, aluminum, minerals, vehicle assembly,
textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, explosives,
munitions, aircraft repair, domestic appliances, oil refining.
Trade (2009 Central Bank figures): Exports--$3.813 billion.
Imports--$ 8.515 billion.
Geography of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Area: 51,129 sq. km, slightly smaller than West Virginia.
Cities: Capital--Sarajevo (est. pop 387,876); Banja Luka
(220,407); Mostar (208,904); Tuzla (118,500); Bihac (49,544).
Terrain: Mountains in the central and southern regions, plains
along the Sava River in the north.
Climate: Hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation
have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy
winters in the southeast.
Government of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Type: Parliamentary democracy.
Constitution: The Dayton Agreement, signed December 14,
1995, included a new constitution now in force.
Independence: April 1992 (from Yugoslavia).
Branches: Executive--Chairman of the Presidency and two
other members of three-member rotating presidency (head of
state), Chairman of the Council of Ministers (head of
government), Council of Ministers (cabinet). Legislative--
bicameral parliamentary assembly, consisting of a House of
Representatives and a House of Peoples. Judicial--
Constitutional Court; Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which
has jurisdiction over war crimes, terrorism, human
trafficking, and organized and serious economic crimes;
Ministry of Justice.
Subdivisions: Two Entities: Federation of Bosnia and
Herzegovina (divided into 10 cantons) and Republika Srpska.
In accordance with Annex 2, Article V, of the Dayton Peace
Agreement that left the unresolved status of Brcko subject
to binding international arbitration, an Arbitration
Tribunal was formed in mid-1996. On March 5, 1999, the
Tribunal issued its Final Award. The Final Award established
a special District for the entire pre-war Brcko Municipality
(Opstina), under the exclusive sovereignty of Bosnia and
Herzegovina. The territory of the District belongs
simultaneously to both Entities, the Republika Srpska and
the Federation, in condominium. Amendment I to the BiH
constitution, passed in March 2009, codifies this status in
the constitution. In accordance with the Final Award, the
District is self-governing and has a single, unitary,
multiethnic, democratic Government; a unified and
multiethnic police force operating under a single command
structure; and an independent judiciary. The District
Government exercises, throughout the pre-war Brcko
Municipality, those powers previously exercised by the two
Entities and the former three municipal governments. The
Brcko District is demilitarized.
Political parties: Party of Democratic Action (SDA); Social
Democratic Party (SDP); Party for Bosnia and Herzegovina
(SBiH); Alliance for a Better Future of BiH (SBB-BiH);
Bosnian Patriotic Party (BPS); National Democratic Union
(DNZ); Bosnian Party (BOSS); Civil Democratic Party (GDS);
Liberal Democratic Party (LDS); Social Democratic Union
(SDU); Croatian Democratic Union of BiH (HDZ-BiH); Croatian
Democratic Union-1990 (HDZ-1990); People’s Party of Work for
Progress; Croatian Party of Rights-Djapic/Jurisic (HSP-D/J);
Christian Democratic Union of BiH (HKDU); Croat Peasants’
Party-New Croat Initiative (HSS-NHI); Croatian Peoples’
Union; Nasa Stranka (NS); Serbian Democratic Party (SDS);
Alliance of Independent Social Democrats (SNSD); Socialist
Party of Republika Srpska (SPRS); Party for Democratic
Progress (PDP); Democratic Party (DP); New Socialist Party
(NSP); Serb Radical Party of the Republika Srpska (SRS-RS);
Serbian Radical Party-Dr. Vojislav Seselj (SRS-VS);
Democratic Peoples' Alliance (DNS); Democratic National
Suffrage: Universal at age 18.
Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina
This Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina shows the borders of the
country, as well as rivers, and cities including Saravejo the
capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina. (Maps from the U.S. State
Official Name of Bosnia and Herzegovina
The Official Name of Bosnia and Herzegovina is Bosnia and
Herzegovina. (Facts from the U.S. State Department)
People of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Nationalities: Bosniak (Bosnian Muslim), Bosnian Croat,
Population (July 2004 est.): 3.8 million (Note: all data
dealing with population are subject to considerable error
because of the dislocations caused by armed conflict and
ethnic cleansing from 1992-95. The most recent census was
conducted in 1991.)
Population growth rate (2004 est.): 0.45%.
Ethnic groups: Bosniak 48.3%, Serb 34.0%, Croat 15.4%,
others 2.3%. (Source: UNDP Human Development Report 2002--
Religions: Muslim (40%); Orthodox (31%); Catholic (15%);
Protestant (4%); other (10%).
Languages: Bosnian, Serbian, Croatian (formerly "Serbo-
Education: 9 years of mandatory primary school, 3-4 years of
secondary school (vocational or liberal arts), 3 years of
undergraduate study and 2 years of graduate study at
universities (depending on major). In Bosnia and
Herzegovina, there are 1,089 primary schools with 359,902
students, 289 secondary schools with 148,100 students, and
20 universities with 139 faculties plus 10 academies and 4
religious faculties with 105,488 students. The main public
universities are in larger cities (Sarajevo, Mostar, Banja
Luka, Tuzla, Bihac, Zenica) and there are a number of
private institutions of higher education. Adult literacy
rate--male 94.1%, female 78.0%.
Health: Infant mortality rate (2005 est.)--21.05
deaths/1,000 live births. Life expectancy (2005 est.)--male
70.09 years, female 75.8 years.
Work force (2001 est.): 1.026 million.
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