Countries of the World:
Resources about Colombia including maps, facts about the land, people, history,
government, political conditions, and economy.
Economy of Colombia
GDP (2008): $140.8 billion; base year 2000: $93.7 billion.
Annual growth rate (2009 est.): -0.1%.
Per capita GDP (purchasing power parity; IMF 2009): $8,205.
Government expenditures (2009): 27.6% of GDP.
Natural resources: Coal, petroleum, natural gas, iron ore,
nickel, gold, silver, copper, platinum, emeralds.
Industry (19% of GDP): Types--textiles, garments, footwear,
chemicals, metal products, cement, cardboard containers,
plastic resins and manufactures, beverages, wood products,
pharmaceuticals, machinery, electrical equipment.
Agriculture (8% of GDP): Products--coffee, bananas, cut
flowers, cotton, sugarcane, livestock, rice, corn, tobacco,
potatoes, soybeans, sorghum, cocoa beans, oilseed.
Cultivated land--8.2% of total area.
Services (64% of GDP): Government, personal and other
services--17.5%; financial services--18.1%; commerce--13.4%;
transportation and communications services--7%; construction
and public works--5%; electricity, gas, water--2.7%.
Taxes (9% of GDP): Includes taxes on imports, products, and
the value-added tax.
Trade: Exports (2008)--$37 billion: petroleum, coffee, coal,
nickel, emeralds, apparel, bananas, cut flowers. Major
markets--U.S., Venezuela, Ecuador, Switzerland, Peru, Chile.
Imports (2008)--$39 billion: machinery/equipment, grains,
chemicals, transportation equipment, mineral products,
consumer products, metals/metal products, plastic/rubber,
paper products, aircraft, oil and gas industry equipment,
supplies, chemicals, electricity. Major suppliers--U.S.,
China, Mexico, Brazil, Venezuela.
Geography of Colombia
Area: 1.14 million sq. km. (440,000 sq. mi.); about the size
of California and Texas combined; fourth-largest country in
Cities: Capital--Bogota (pop. 2005: 6.7 million). Other major
cities include Medellin, Cali, Barranquilla, and Cartagena.
Terrain: Flat coastal areas, with extensive coastlines on the
Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea, three rugged parallel
mountain chains, central highlands and flat eastern
Climate: Tropical on coast and eastern grasslands, cooler in
Government of Colombia
Independence: July 20, 1810 (from Spain).
Constitution: July 5, 1991.
Branches: Executive--president (head of state and government).
Judicial--Supreme Court, Constitutional Court, Council of
State, Superior Judicial Council.
Administrative divisions: 32 departments; Bogota, capital
Major political parties: Colombian Conservative Party,
Colombian Liberal Party, Social National Unity, Radical
Change, Alternative Democratic Pole, Party of National
Integration, and numerous smaller political movements.
Suffrage: Universal, age 18 and over.
Map of Colombia
This Map of Colombia shows the borders of the country, as well
as rivers, and cities including Bogota the capital of
Colombia. (Maps from the U.S. State Department)
Official Name of Colombia
The Official Name of Colombia is the Republic of Colombia.
(Facts from the U.S. State Department)
People of Colombia
Nationality: Noun and adjective--Colombian(s).
Population (May 2009): 44.91 million.
Annual population growth: 1.4%.
Religion: Roman Catholic 90%; other 10%.
Education: Years compulsory--9. Attendance--80% of children
enter school. Only 5 years of primary school are offered in
many rural areas. Literacy--93% in urban areas, 67% in rural
Health: Infant mortality rate--18.9/1,000. Life expectancy--
total population 72.81 yrs., men 68.98 yrs., women 76.76 yrs.
Ethnic groups: Mestizo (58%), white (20%), Mulatto (14%),
black (4%), mixed black-Amerindian (3%), and Amerindian (1%).
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